Before going further please remind it that there is no cure for HIV/AIDS. This means there are no means that we can put end to HIV in peoples’ bodies after there are infected with it. Here treatment means to retain it in the stage of less harm to human body.
The name of the treatment of HIV/AIDS is called antiretroviral treatment. It is not the cure and it helps people from getting sick for many years. In treatment there are drugs which have to be taken for the rest of the person’s life. In this treatment the drugs helps our body to maintain the amount of HIV at a very low level. This stops the weakening of the immune system and it allows the body to recover from the damages the HIV has caused already.
Antiretroviral treatment is the combination treatment. Combination treatment is a treatment where patient will need to take more than one drug at a time. If only drug is taken this would lead to HIV becoming resistance to that particular drug. Taking more than one drugs can vastly reduce the rate at which resistance would develop, this can lead to more effective treatment.
In order to start antiretroviral treatment the patient must do CD4 count test. HIV attack a type of immune system cell call T-helper cell. This cell has a protein on its surface called CD4 on which HIV get attach before entering into T helper cell.
T helper cell plays a very important role in immune system as it the main co-ordinator among other cells in immune system to fight diseases. The huge reduction in the number of T helper cell has a serious effect on the immune system. As a result of increasing number HIV the number T helper cell reduce in great significant of our body. Therefore there would be fewer cells available to help the immune system.
CD4 test measure the number of T helper cell in a cubic millimetre of blood. Normally counts are between 500 and 1600 cells per cubic millimetre of blood. After the HIV infection the number of CD4 cells would drop gradually. If the person is physically week the number would drop quickly. The treatment is usually recommended if the test shows lower than 350 cells/cubic millimetres. However the guidelines vary from country to country and this is constantly discussed. Other factor such as viral load and opportunistic infection are also considered.